Effective Techniques for Excavator Operations

Excavator Operating Techniques:

First and foremost, it is essential to assess the surroundings. During rotation operations, be mindful of surrounding obstacles and terrain to ensure safe maneuvers. Verify the front and rear directions of the tracks to avoid tipping or collisions. Avoid positioning the final drive face towards the excavation direction, as this may lead to damage to the travel motor or hoses. Ensure complete contact between the left and right tracks and the ground to enhance the overall machine's dynamic stability.

Effective Excavation Methods:

When the bucket cylinder and link, as well as the arm cylinder and arm, form a 90-degree angle with each other, excavation force is maximized. Maintaining a 30-degree angle between the bucket teeth and the ground reduces cutting resistance. When excavating with the arm, ensure the bucket angle ranges from 45 degrees in front to 30 degrees in the back. Simultaneously using the boom and bucket enhances excavation efficiency.

Excavating Rocks:

Avoid using the bucket to excavate rocks, as it may cause significant damage to the machine. When excavating rocks, adjust the machine's position based on the cracks in the rock, allowing smooth entry of the bucket for excavation. Insert the bucket teeth into rock cracks and utilize the digging force of the arm and bucket (be mindful of tooth slippage). For intact rocks, break them first before using the bucket for excavation.

Slope-Leveling Operations:

During surface leveling, place the machine on flat ground to prevent excessive machine movement. Ensure the coordination of movements between the boom and arm, as their speed control is crucial for precise surface leveling.

Loading Operations:

Ensure the machine is in a level and stable position for accurate unloading during rotation, reducing the operation cycle time. Maintain an appropriate distance between the machine and the truck to avoid collisions during a 180-degree rotation. Prefer left-turn loading for improved visibility and higher operational efficiency. Correctly manage the rotation angle to minimize rotation time. As the truck is lower than the excavator, this allows for quicker boom elevation and provides better visibility. Load sand and gravel first before placing larger stones to minimize impact on the truck bed.

Working in Soft Ground or Water:

During operations on soft soil, assess the degree of compaction and limit the bucket's digging range to prevent accidents such as landslides or excessive machine sinking.

When working in water, pay attention to the permissible water depth for the machine (water level should be below the sprocket wheel center). If the water level is relatively high, water may enter the swing bearing, causing poor lubrication. Water impact on engine fan blades can lead to damage, and water ingress may cause short circuits or disconnection of electrical components.

Hoisting Operations:

When using the hydraulic excavator for hoisting operations, carefully assess the surrounding conditions at the lifting site. Utilize high-strength lifting hooks and steel wire ropes, and preferably use specialized lifting devices. Choose the fine operation mode for smooth and balanced movements. Ensure the appropriate length of the lifting rope to maintain precise control and minimize swinging. Construction personnel should avoid getting close to the lifted object to prevent potential hazards from improper operation.

Smooth Operating Methods:

Stability during operations not only enhances work efficiency and prolongs machine life but also ensures operational safety (place the machine on relatively flat ground). The stability of the final drive is better when positioned at the rear, as it can prevent the final drive from encountering external impacts. The track's axis distance on the ground is always greater than the wheelbase, making forward work more stable. Avoid lateral operations as much as possible. Keeping the excavation point close to the machine improves stability and efficiency. If the excavation point is far from the machine, the center of gravity may shift forward, causing instability during operation. Lateral excavation is less stable than forward excavation, especially if the excavation point is far from the machine's center. Therefore, maintain an appropriate distance between the excavation point and the machine's center for balanced and efficient operations.

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