Safety Guides for Operating Excavators in Special Environments

In special environmental conditions, such as steep slopes and soft ground, operating excavators requires careful attention to safety protocols to mitigate potential hazards. Failure to observe these precautions can lead to dangerous situations. This article will introduce three precautions to be aware of when operating excavators in special environmental conditions.

Operating on Steep Slopes and Soft Ground:

1. When driving downhill on steep slopes, maintain a lower speed using the travel and throttle levers. When traveling uphill or downhill on slopes exceeding 15 degrees, keep the bucket and boom at a 90-110 degree angle, with the bucket's back edge 20-30cm above the ground, and reduce engine speed.

2. If braking is required when going downhill, place the travel lever in neutral so that the brakes will automatically engage.
3. When traveling uphill, if track slippage occurs, besides relying on track propulsion, utilize the pulling force of the bucket to assist the machine in climbing.

4. If the engine stalls while climbing, move the travel lever to neutral, lower the bucket to the ground to stop the machine, and then restart the engine.

5. If the engine stalls on a slope, refrain from performing rotation operations to prevent the upper structure from rotating under its own weight.

6. Do not open the cabin doors when the machine is stopped on a slope to avoid sudden changes in operating force; cabin doors should always remain closed.

7. When traveling on slopes, avoid changing direction, as it may cause the machine to overturn or slide. If changing direction on a slope is necessary, operate on a gentler, sturdy slope.

8. Avoid traversing slopes as it may result in machine sliding.

9. When working on slopes, refrain from rotating as it may cause the machine to lose balance and tip over or slide; exercise caution when rotating and operating the boom at low speeds.

Operating in Water and Soft Ground:

1. If the riverbed is flat and the water flow slow, the operating depth in water should be below the centerline of the track rollers. If the riverbed is poor and the water flow fast, take care to prevent water or debris from entering the swing bearing structure, swing pinion, central swing joint, etc. If water or debris enters the swing main bearing, swing pinion, swing gear, and central swing joint, replace the grease or swing main bearing immediately, suspend operation, and repair promptly.

2. When operating on soft ground, the depth of operation should not exceed the machine's bottom line.

3. When one track sinks into mud and water, use the boom, arm, and bucket to lift the track, then place wooden planks or logs underneath to drive the machine out. If necessary, place a wooden board under the blade bottom as well. When using the work device to lift the machine, the angle between the boom and arm should be 90-110 degrees, ensuring the bucket's bottom contacts the muddy ground.

4. If both tracks sink into mud and water, follow the above method to place wooden planks, anchor the bucket into the ground (bucket teeth inserted into the ground), retract the arm while placing the travel lever in the forward position, and pull the excavator out.

5. If the machine is stuck in mud and water and cannot be freed by its own power, securely tether it to the chassis with a strong steel cable, place thick wooden planks between the cable and chassis to prevent damage, and then tow it upwards with another machine. The holes on the chassis are for towing lighter objects and should not be used to pull heavy objects to prevent hole rupture and danger.

6. When working in mud and water, if the work device connecting pins are submerged, apply grease after each completion of work. For heavy-duty or deep excavation work, apply grease to the work device connecting pins before each operation. After each grease application, operate the boom, arm, and bucket several times, then reapply grease until the old grease is expelled.

Operating in Dusty Areas:

1. Regularly inspect and clean the air filter element, replacing it if necessary.

2. Frequently check for contamination in the water tank, shorten the cleaning interval of the water tank to prevent internal blockage by impurities, affecting engine and hydraulic system cooling.

3. Handle diesel fuel carefully to prevent impurities from entering, and check the diesel filter at appropriate intervals, replacing it if necessary.

4. Clean the starter motor and generator as needed to prevent dust accumulation.

In the operation of heavy machinery, navigating challenging terrains and environments requires adherence to specific protocols. Whether traversing steep slopes, negotiating soft ground, or working in waterlogged areas, understanding proper techniques is essential for safety and efficiency. By following established procedures and exercising caution, operators can mitigate risks and ensure smooth operations.

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